Awesome GIFs of Scientific Experiments
1. Hydrogen Peroxide Mixed With Potassium Iodide
2. Explosive Polymerization of p Nitro Aniline
3. Dissolving a tablet in weightlessness
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At the U.S. Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory, scientists have been experimenting with sound waves and pharmaceutical solutions, levitating soluble drops between two speakers facing each other. While their research has produced some visually fascinating results, it has also led to the discovery of a far more effective method for creating amorphous drugs, which happen to be the more desirable of two forms that pharmaceutical drugs can take.Watch Video Here.
GIFs by Science-llama
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“I do know that kind fate allowed me to find a couple of nice ideas after many years of feverish labor,” Einstein (at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton in 1940) once wrote to a fellow physicist.
Like A Falling Apple
Formulated in 1687, Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation was a turning point in physic. While the legend of the apple falling on his head is an exaggeration of the truth, Newton did have a brilliant insight: that every object in the universe attracts every other object. The force of attraction between two objects depends on only two things: the mass of the objects, and the distance between them. So, more massive objects exert a stronger force, while more distant objects exert a weaker force. Newton was able to formulate a simple equation to describe this, pictured above: force is equal to Newton’s gravitational constant, multiplied by masses of the objects, then divided by the square of the distance between the objects. What’s remarkable is that the law truly is universal—not only can it predict how things move here on Earth, but it can also the movements of the moon, planets, stars and even galaxies millions of lightyears away. Newton believed that the movement of every object in our universe could be predicted, but we know now that while his theory generally holds true, it is not precise. Einstein’s theory of general relativity had to step in to fill the holes.
(Image Credit: The Wonders Collection)
Ten things you probably did’nt know about dark energy
Dark energy is the biggest mystery in the cosmos, pervading the vast emptiness of space for billions of light-years. But if you thought you knew everything there was to know about this strange force, think again.
Discovery Space sat down with Michael Turner, a cosmologist at the University of Chicago, to pin down the 10 biggest things you didn’t know about dark energy.
10. Dark Energy’s Discoverer Didn’t Coin the Term
Who came up with the term? “I did,” Turner said. “That’s because when you find something new and weird, you have to name it. It can’t just be ‘the funny stuff that helps the universe speed up.’”
The term is also used to say that it’s different than dark matter, which is yet another weird constituent of the cosmos, and behaves more like energy than anything else that we know of.
9. Albert Einstein First Stumbled on Dark Energy’s Path
Thing is, Einstein didn’t even know it.
The German-born scientist derived an historic ”cosmological constant” to make the universe static — or in other words, prevent gravity from steering the cosmos into a “big crunch” billions of years in the future.
“Instead of counteracting gravity, however, Einstein’s cosmological constant overpowers it and causes the universe to expand at an accelerating pace,” Turner told Discovery Space. “People like to say that even when Einstein thought he made a mistake he was right, but that’s a bit of a stretch.”
If Einstein’s cosmological constant does exist, it’s about four times stronger than he first anticipated.
“We don’t think the universe is static,” he said. “It’s inconsistent with what we see out there.”
8. Dark Energy Could Be Nothing
The “gravity” of dark energy is repulsive, making it a large-scale anti-gravity that acts like an overzealous traffic cop between clusters of galaxies. What’s between those galaxies? Empty space.
“The simplest explanation for dark energy is that it’s associated with something called the ‘quantum vacuum,’” Turner said.
According to quantum mechanics — which explains how the universe works on a small scale — empty space is full of particles living on borrowed time and energy, Turner explained. So it’s not too unreasonable to suggest dark energy might also occupy that “empty” space.
7. Dark Energy Can’t Be Broken into Particles
About 2,500 years ago, Democritus suggested there were four elements in the universe: air, fire, earth and water, later adding “ether.”
“He started on this path that everything is made of indivisible particles called atoms, and that path eventually led us to subatomic particles called quarks today,” Turner said. “But dark energy isn’t made of quarks, or any other particle.”
6. Dark Energy Is Everywhere
According to Einstein’s famous equation E=MC^2, matter can be converted completely into energy, and the universe can be divided into a “pie” of energy.
“One of the most important things about dark energy is that it makes up most of the stuff in the universe,” Turner told Discovery Space. ” however, locally, we don’t notice it.”
The breakdown of the pie is roughly like this:
- 74 percent is dark energy
- 22 percent is dark matter
- 3.6 percent is nearly invisible gas between stars
- 0.4 percent is stars, planets, moons and everything else. Including you.
5. Dark Energy Is the Most Elastic Substance Ever
“It’d be safe to say it’s more than a zillion times more elastic than anything we know of,” Turner said. “Even NASA’s most stretchy material, whatever it may be.”
If one were to “weigh” the energy of dark energy in a large coffee cup, it would be about 1 x 10^-27 grams (0.000000000000000000000000001 grams) or, in other words, not a whole lot.
If you do the math, Turner explained, contracting a volume of dark energy between here and the sun would create enough juice to power the Earth for about nearly 100,000 years.
4. Dark Energy Shaped the Universe
The Big Bang is thought to have kick-started the universe we live in, but after the event, dark energy began to seize its grip on matter and overcome gravity.
“Our universe was shaped by battle between dark energy and matter,” Turner said. “For the first 8 billion years or so of the universe’s existence, the gravity of matter held sway and clusters of galaxies formed.”
Roughly five billion years after that — or about one billion years ago — dark energy took over, and “put its foot on accelerator,” Turner said. “The expansion of the universe began speeding up and no larger structures were built.”
3. Dark Energy May Not be Energy at All
If it’s not made of particles, and may be nothing, is it really safe to call it energy?
“Not in the least bit,” Turner told Discovery Space. “There may very well be no dark energy at all.”
Instead, Turner suggested that Einstein’s ideas about gravity might need to be replaced.
“Few people think Einstein got the last word on gravity. His story didn’t incorporate the details of the universe at the atomic level,” he said, which is what might hold the key to gravity.”
2. Dark Energy Holds the Destiny of the Cosmos
Until we understand what dark energy is, Turner thinks we won’t really know what the fate of the universe is.
“It could continue to accelerate as it is,” he said. “If it does, then in about 100 billion years the galaxies around us will be speeding away from us too quickly to see.”
Another scenario is that the acceleration of the universe’s expansion may be doubled. And that’s bad news for everyone that might be out there — the cosmos will rip itself to shreds.
“We don’t know if the acceleration we see today is accelerating,” Turner said. “If it is, the ‘big rip’ will occur in roughly 20 billion years.”
One last option is equally as frightening.
“Maybe dark energy’s next trick is to decelerate expansion and lead to the collapse of the universe,” Turner said. “We’ve trapped ourselves time and time again believing in the simplest case, only to correct ourselves. If you want to be squeaky-clean correct, we can’t confidently guess the future of the universe yet.”
1. No One Knows What Dark Energy Is
If you thought you were clueless, even the experts don’t know.
“Welcome to the club,” Turner said. “It’s the most profound mystery in all of science. It ties together the destiny of the universe, mysteries about gravity and quantum nothingness. How’s that for a mystery?”
That moment when you cannot understand your own handwriting. -_-
What would happen if everyone on Earth jumped at exactly the same time?
If everyone on Earth stood shoulder-to-shoulder, they would occupy an area roughly the size of Los Angeles — about 500 square miles. Now imagine if every single one of them jumped. Together. All at the same time. What would happen?
The answer? Basically squat. Humans — even in exceptionally large numbers — are small fry relative to the Earth (in the latest installment of his What If? series, XKCD’s Randall Munroe explains that Earth outweighs humans by a factor of over ten trillion); but as this highly entertaining video from vsauce makes clear, sometimes the physics behind the question is more interesting than the answer itself. Let Michael Stevens run you through the physics of global-population-sized jumps, including a cameo by none other than Felicia Day!
[Via Bad Astronomy]
Decibel:Unit of sound level, if P1 & P2 are two amounts of power, the first is said to be n decibels greater, where n = 10 log10 (P1/P2)
Density:The mass of a substance per unit volume.
Diffraction:The bending of light around the corners of an object.
Dioptre:Unit of power of a lens.
Direct current:An electrical current which always flows in one direction.
Dispersion:The splitting of white light into its component colors.
Displacement:The shortest distance between the initial and final position of a moving body. It is a vector quantity.
Distance:The actual path length covered by a body. It is a scalar quantity.
Doppler Effect:The apparent change in the frequency of a wave due to relative motion between the source and the observer.
Calorie: A unit of heat, 1Calorie = 4.186 joules.
Candela: The S.I. unit of luminous intensity defined as the luminous intensity in a given direction of a source that emits monochromatic photons of frequency 540 x 1012 Hz & has a radiant intensity in that direction of 1/683 W/sr
Capacitance: The ratio of charge stored per increase in potential difference.
Capacitor: Electrical device used to store charge and energy in the electrical field.
Capillarity: The rise or fall of a liquid in a tube of very fine bore.
Carnot’s theorem: No engine operating between two temperatures can be more efficient than a reversible engine working between the same two temperatures.
Centrifugal force: An outward pseudo force acting on a body in circular motion.
Centripetal force: The radial force required to keep an object moving in a circular path; it is equal to mv2/r.
Charles’ law: For a given mass of a gas at constant pressure, the volume is directly proportional to the temperature.
Chromatic aberration: An optical lens defect causing color fringes, because the lens brings different colors of light to focus at different points.
Clausius’ statement of second law of Thermodynamics: It is not possible that at the end of a cycle of changes heat has been transferred from a colder body to a hotter body without producing some other effect.
Closed system: The system which cannot exchange heat or matter with the surroundings.
Coefficient of linear expansion: The increase in length per unit original length per degree rise in temperature.
Coefficient of superficial expansion: The increase in area per unit original area per degree rise in temperature.
Coefficient of volumetric expansion: The increase in volume per unit original volume per degree rise in temperature.
Coherent source: A source in which there is a constant phase difference between waves emitted from different parts of the source.
Condensation point: The temperature at which a gas or vapor changes back to liquid.
Conduction: The transfer of heat from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature by increased kinetic energy moving from molecule to molecule.
Convection: The transfer of heat by the actual transfer of matter.
Coulomb’s law: The force between any two charges is directly proportional to the product of charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the charges.
Critical angle: The angle of incidence in a denser medium for which angle of refraction is .
Cyclotron: A device used to accelerate the charged particles.