Quarks to Quasars

Astronaut Chris Hadfield’s Extraordinary Life in Space


(Source: youtube.com)

Awesome GIFs of Scientific Experiments

1. Hydrogen Peroxide Mixed With Potassium Iodide

2. Explosive Polymerization of p Nitro Aniline

3. Dissolving a tablet in weightlessness

See more here

Paramecium Feeding


Celestial Light by Ole C. Salomonsen // set 01

(Source: amethystveins)

Acoustic Levitation

At the U.S. Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory, scientists have been experimenting with sound waves and pharmaceutical solutions, levitating soluble drops between two speakers facing each other. While their research has produced some visually fascinating results, it has also led to the discovery of a far more effective method for creating amorphous drugs, which happen to be the more desirable of two forms that pharmaceutical drugs can take.Watch Video Here. 

GIFs by Science-llama

(Source: mymodernmet.com)


solar flares (up to 300 000 km long) and sunspot (approx 27 000 km across) captured by the swedish solar telescope in 2002.

Above the Earth

7 Myths and Facts about Chocolate

Whether you prefer a gooey chocolate truffle or a mug of hot cocoa, chocolate is the number one indulgence for most of us—especially on Valentine’s Day. But this indulgence comes at a price, right? After all, isn’t chocolate bad for us, full of caffeine and saturated fat? Not so fast—new research has shown that chocolate can be a part of a healthy diet after all.

Here are some common myths about this Valentine’s Day (or any day) treat, along with the facts to set the record straight.

Myth: Chocolate is high in caffeine. 
Fact: While eating chocolate may perk you up, chocolate is actually not very high in caffeine. A 1.4-ounce chocolate bar or an 8-ounce glass of chocolate milk both contain 6 mg of caffeine, the same amount as a cup of decaffeinated coffee. (For reference, regular coffee contains about 65-135mg of caffeine.)

Myth: Chocolate is loaded with saturated fat and is bad for your cholesterol. 
Fact: Stearic acid, the main saturated fat found in milk chocolate, is unique. Research has shown that it doesn’t raise cholesterol levels the same way that other types of saturated fats do. In fact, eating a 1.4 ounce chocolatebar instead of a carbohydrate-rich snack has been shown to increase HDL (good) cholesterol levels.

Myth: Chocolate lacks any nutritional value. 
Fact: Chocolate is a good source of magnesium, copper, iron and zinc. It also contains polyphenols (an antioxidant also found in tea and red wine) that have been associated with a decreased risk of coronary disease. An average chocolate bar contains about the same amount of antioxidants as a 5-ounce glass of red wine.

A daily serving of dark chocolate, which contains more antioxidants than milk chocolate, can also help lower blood pressure and improve insulin resistance according to a joint study between Tufts University in Boston and the University of L’Aquila in Italy. The findings do not suggest that people with high blood pressure consume dark chocolate in lieu of taking their prescribed medication, but that the flavonoids in dark chocolate may have a positive effect on blood pressure and insulin resistance. Learn more about the health properties of chocolate.

Myth: Chocolate causes cavities. 
Fact: Candy alone is not responsible for cavities. Cavities are formed when bacteria in the mouth metabolize sugars and starches from any type of food (soda, candy, juice, bread, rice and pasta) to produce acid. This acid then eats through the enamel of the tooth, causing a cavity.

The protein, calcium and phosphate content of milk chocolate may actually protect tooth enamel, and its naturally-occurring fat content means that chocolate clears the mouth faster than other candy, reducing the amount of time its sugars remain in contact with tooth surfaces.

Regular fluoride use, proper oral hygiene to remove fermentable carbohydrate residue and the application of plastic sealants can all help prevent the formation of cavities—whether you avoid chocolate or not.

Myth: Chocolate causes headaches. 
Fact: While sited as a common cause of migraines, a study by the University of Pittsburgh has shown no link between chocolate and headaches. The results of that double-blind study of 63 participants known to suffer chronic headaches were published in the neurology journal Cephalalgia. Chronic headaches were once thought to be caused by amines in foods (including histamine and beta-phenylethylamine) such as cheddar cheese, peanuts, cured meats, chocolate and alcohol, but this study eliminated chocolate as a possible headache cause.

Myth: Chocolate causes acne. 
Fact: Regardless of what your parents or grandparents may still say, studies in the past twenty years have eliminated chocolate as a cause of acne. In fact, many dermatologists doubt that diet plays any significant role in the development of acne. Acne is now believed to be caused by a combination of high bacterial levels and oil on the skin. For more information about the causes and treatment of acne, click here.

Myth: Chocolate causes weight gain. 
Fact: Any food can be part of a healthy diet if consumed in moderation. An average chocolate bar contains 220 calories, which is low enough to be a part of a weight control diet if other high-calorie foods are eliminated. Enjoying the occasional piece of chocolate may reduce the risk of severe bingeing, which can occur when you feel deprived of your favorite foods.

Chocolate’s bad reputation is slowly changing and research now shows that chocolate can be a part of an overall healthy lifestyle, when consumed in moderation. If you keep your portion sizes small and select dark chocolate whenever possible, the occasional treat can be a guilt-free part of your diet.



What does it feel like to fly over planet Earth?

A time lapse taken from the front of the International Space Station as it orbits our planet at night. Beginning over the Pacific Ocean and continuing over North and South America before entering daylight near Antarctica.
Visible cities, countries and landmarks include (in order) Vancouver Island, Victoria, Vancouver, Seattle, Portland, San Francisco, Los Angeles. Phoenix. Multiple cities in Texas, New Mexico and Mexico. Mexico City, the Gulf of Mexico, the Yucatan Peninsula, El Salvador, Lightning in the Pacific Ocean, Guatemala, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, Lake Titicaca, and the Amazon. Also visible is the Earth’s ionosphere (thin yellow line), a satellite and the stars of our galaxy.

The fifth planetJupiter

(Source: nasa.gov)

I know that I’m drunk but I’ll say the words, 
And he’ll listen this time even though they’re slurred, 
So I dialed his number and confessed to him, 
I’m still in love but all I heard was nothing. 

Lezz sing. 

Ten things you probably didn’t know about Caterpillars

1. A caterpillar has just one job – to eat. 
During the larval stage, the caterpillar must consume enough to sustain itself into adulthood. Without proper nutrition, it may not have the energy to complete its metamorphosis, or may be unable to develop eggs as an adult. Caterpillars can eat an enormous amount during a life cycle stage that typically lasts several weeks. Some consume 27,000 times their body weight during this life phase.

2. Caterpillars increase their body mass by as much as 1,000 times or more.
The larval stage of the life cycle is all about growth. Within the span of a few weeks, the caterpillar will grow exponentially. Because its cuticle, or skin, is only so pliable, the caterpillar will molt multiple times as it gains size and mass. The stage between molts is called an instar, and most caterpillars go through 5-6 instars before pupating.

3. A caterpillar’s first meal is usually its eggshell.
In most cases, when a caterpillar ecloses (hatches) from its egg, it will consume the remainder of the shell. The outer layer of the egg, called the chorion, is rich in protein, and provides the new larva with a nutritious start.

4. A caterpillar has as many as 4,000 muscles in its body.
That’s one seriously muscle-bound insect! By comparison, humans have just 629 muscles in a considerably larger body. The caterpillar’s head capsule alone consists of 248 individual muscles, and about 70 muscles control each body segment. Remarkably, each of the 4,000 muscles is innervated by one or two neurons.

5. Caterpillars have 12 eyes.
On each side of its head, a caterpillar has 6 tiny eyelets, called stemmata, arranged in a semi-circle. One of the 6 eyelets is usually offset a bit, and located closer to the antennae. You would think an insect with 12 eyes would have excellent eyesight, but that’s not the case. The stemmata serve merely to help the caterpillar differentiate between light and dark. If you watch a caterpillar, you’ll notice it sometimes moves its head from side to side. This most likely helps it judge depths and distances.

6. Caterpillars produce silk.
Using modified salivary glands along the sides of their mouth, caterpillars can produce silk as needed. Some caterpillars, like gypsy moths, disperse by “ballooning” from the treetops on a silken thread. Others, such as eastern tent caterpillars or webworms, construct silk tents in which they live communally. Bagworms use silk to join dead foliage together into a shelter. Caterpillars also use silk when they pupate, either to suspend a chrysalis or to construct a cocoon.

7. Caterpillars have 6 legs, just as adult butterflies or moths do.
But wait! There are way more than 6 legs on most caterpillars you’ve seen, right? Most of those legs are false legs, called prolegs, which help the caterpillar hold onto plant surfaces and allow it to climb. The 3 pairs of legs on the caterpillar’s thoracic segments are the true legs, which it will retain in adulthood. A caterpillar may have up to 5 pairs of prolegs on its abdominal segments, usually including a terminal pair on the hind end. The

8. Caterpillars move in a wavelike motion, from back to front.
Caterpillars with a full complement of prolegs move in a fairly predictable motion. Usually, the caterpillar will first anchor itself using the terminal pair of prolegs, and then reach forward with one pair of legs at a time, starting from the hind end. There’s more going on than just leg action, though. The caterpillar’s blood pressure changes as it moves forward, and its gut, which is basically a cylinder suspended inside its body, advances in sync with the head and rear end. Inchworms and loopers, which have fewer prolegs, move by pulling their hind ends forward in contact with the thorax, and then extending their front half.

9. Caterpillars get creative when it comes to self defense.
Life at the bottom of the food chain can be tough, so caterpillars employ all kinds of strategies to avoid becoming a bird snack. Some caterpillars, such as the early instars of black swallowtails, look like bird droppings. Certain inchworms in the family Geometridae mimic twigs, and bear markings that resemble leaf scars or bark. Other caterpillars use the opposite strategy, making themselves visible with bright colors to advertise their toxicity. A few caterpillars, like the spicebush swallowtail, display large eyespots to deter birds from eating them. If you’ve ever tried to take a caterpillar from its host plant, only to have it fall to the ground, you’ve observed it using thanatosis to thwart your efforts to collect it. A swallowtailcaterpillar can be identified by its smelly osmeterium, a special defensive stink gland just behind the head.

10. Many caterpillars use the toxins from their host plants to their own advantage.
Caterpillars and plants co-evolve. Some host plants produce toxic or foul-tasting compounds meant to dissuade herbivores from munching their foliage. But many caterpillars can sequester the toxins in their bodies, effectively using these compounds to protect themselves from predators. The classic example of this is the monarch caterpillar and its host plant, milkweed. The monarch caterpillar ingests glycosides produced by the milkweed plant. These toxins remain within the monarch through adulthood, making the butterfly unpalatable to birds and other predators.

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